By J. Palti, R. Ausher (auth.), Dr. Josef Palti, Dr. Reuben Ausher (eds.)
Advisory paintings, by means of its very nature, is an middleman among the re seek employee and those that practice the result of his examine. The problem of advisory paintings is to plot technique of and locate pathways for transmitting learn effects to the consumer, triumph over the reluctance of the latter to alter, and sometimes mix novel principles with well-estab lished traditions. Nowhere is that this problem more than in farming. this is often very true in constructing international locations, the place the distance within the academic point among study employees and farmers will be ex tremely extensive. additionally, village-level advisers are frequently overburdened with non-professional features and aren't sufficiently sponsored up by way of well-trained specialist advisers. hence, in lots of of those international locations there's a critical discrepancy among the information to be had and that wanted and truly utilized at the farm. Advisory paintings in crop defense isn't any exception, yet earnings to a point from evidence: (1) as a result of almost certainly catastrophic nature of pest assault, governments frequently function a supervisory crop safety carrier, the employees of that may be in a position to dispense a few pest keep an eye on suggestion; and (2) the employees of pesticide vendors has a tendency to fill, at the least partly, the necessity for recommendation on easy methods to struggle pests and dis eases with chemicals.
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Curling - where the leaves only curl upwards or downwards, there may be two principal causes: if the leaves simultaneously show darker than normal green colour, the curling is apt to be due to water deficiency; but if there is no change in colour, and some of the leaves curling upwards show silvery colour at their edges, then excessively strong radiation may be the cause. - where curling of leaves is accompanied by some twisting of stalks, this may be due to damage from hormonal weed-killers. Such damage is most frequently found in those parts of the field or plantation nearest fields sprayed with such weedkillers.
Perhaps no other aspect of pest and disease control requires more combined knowledge and experience than that of finding the answer to the question: what ails this crop? Grogan (1981) has put this well in saying that "in practice, a plant diagnostician must play the combined role of a detective and plant ecologist in the broadest sense: each disease problem requires a thorough search for clues, obvious or subtle, of abiotic and biotic factors and their interactions that are possibly involved ...
38 z. ARENSTEIN et al. 4 Pest and Pathogen Symptoms Common on Orchard Crops The Tree as a Whole Is Affected. Virus, viroid and mycoplasma diseases on orchard crops find expression in a great variety of symptoms. On grape-vine, viruses and viroids causing mosaics or leaf deformation ("fan-leaf') are widespread. On deciduous fruit they cause a diversity of symptoms, including mosaics, yellows, "witches broom" and stunting. On sUbtropical and citrus fruit, these diseases may also find expression in symptoms additional to the above: the sunblotch viroid of avocado causes yellow-red, wide stripes on the fruit, and on citrus trees that suffer from xyloporosis, pitting of the stem is found, if the bark is removed.