By Robin L. Rielly
Because the usa started its crusade opposed to various Japanese-held islands within the Pacific, jap strategies required them to advance new guns and techniques. essentially the most the most important to the island attacks was once a brand new team of amphibious gunboats which could carry heavy hearth shut in to shore as American forces landed. those gunboats have been additionally to end up very important within the interdiction of inter-island barge site visitors and, past due within the struggle, the kamikaze probability. numerous diversifications of those gunboats have been built, according to the troop sporting LCI(L). They integrated 3 conversions of the LCI(L), with numerous combos of weapons, rockets and mortars, and a fourth gunboat, the LCS(L), in keeping with an analogous hull yet designed as a guns platform from the start. through the tip of the battle the amphibious gunboats had confirmed their worthy.
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Additional resources for American Amphibious Gunboats in World War II: A History of LCI and LCS(L) Ships in the Pacific
36–37) In a massive air attack just after noon on December 8, 1941, IJNAF G3M Nell and G4M1 Betty bombers, plus escorting A6M2 Zero fighter escorts, struck the FEAF base at Clark Field on Luzon. Japanese commanders and planners had long realized the importance of airpower for their operational success and Homma needed to establish complete Japanese air superiority to ensure the success of his invasion. His first task, therefore, was to destroy the FEAF. The IJNAF was tasked with neutralizing the AAF fighters and bombers in central Luzon and a critical factor was the range of its main fighter, the Zero.
Brereton had pushed his FEAF crews and aircraft to prepare for a morning attack by the Japanese and the remaining FEAF B-17s at Clark scrambled into the air when reports of the attacks on Baguio and Tuguegarao came through; some pilots flew without full fuel tanks and none were loaded with bombs. Clark put up its 15 flyable B-17s into the air to avoid a repeat of the Japanese catching aircraft on the ground as had happened at Hawaii. Fighters also took to the skies to provide combat air patrols over the airfields.
The first four defensive lines, D-1 to D-4, would provide a token resistance, just enough to slow down the Japanese advance. American-Filipino forces would then have sufficient time to prepare the last defensive position, D-5, and a heavier resistance. Mountain ranges east and west anchored this position with Fort Stotsenburg, Mount Arayat, and the Candara Swamps in between the D-5 position. At the D-5 line, the American-Filipino force was to hold the Japanese long enough for the South Luzon Force and units near Manila to retreat into Bataan.