American Countercultures: An Encyclopedia of Nonconformists, by Gina Misiroglu

By Gina Misiroglu

Counterculture, whereas general to explain youth-oriented routine in the course of the Sixties, refers to any try and problem or switch traditional values and practices or the dominant existence of the day. This attention-grabbing three-volume set explores those activities in the United States from colonial instances to the current in colourful aspect. "American Countercultures" is the 1st reference paintings to ascertain the impression of countercultural events on American social heritage. It highlights the writings, recordings, and visible works produced by means of those events to teach, motivate, and incite motion in all eras of the nation's historical past. A-Z entries offer a wealth of data on personalities, areas, occasions, ideas, ideals, teams, and practices. The set comprises a variety of illustrations, a subject finder, fundamental resource files, a bibliography and a filmography, and an index.

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The liquor is prepared from the leaves of common wormwood (Artemisia absinthium) and other ingredients steeped in alcohol, including licorice, star anise, fennel, hyssop, and angelica root. Many absinthe drinkers believed that wormwood was the source of its legendary hallucinogenic powers, but most modern scientific analysis attributes its effects to the very high alcohol content, sometimes as high as 70 or 80 percent. In addition, some less-reputable distillers used toxic chemicals to fake the brilliant green color and other characteristics of absinthe, further contributing to its toxicity and notoriety.

Finally, to counter the effects of segregation in both the North and the South, African Americans formed alternative institutions to defend themselves, their way of life, and their faith. In the late eighteenth century, blacks began to form their own churches, fraternal organizations, civic organizations, mutual aid societies, labor unions, and suffrage clubs to encourage fair voting practices. For example, the African Lodge of the Honorable Society of Free and Accepted Masons of Boston became the first African American Freemasons when they formed in 1775.

In 1880, African American women formed the Colored Women’s Progressive Franchise Association to promote equal rights for women. In 1896, the National Federation of Afro-American Women joined with the National League of Colored Women to create the National Association of Colored Women, a self-help organization that set up day-care centers and early education centers, protested lynching, and fought for the right to vote. African Americans set up their own educational systems, including colleges and universities; their own businesses, which often brought them into conflict with white business owners; and their own labor unions, because they were often excluded from labor unions run by whites.

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