An Ecological and Societal Approach to Biological Control by Jørgen Eilenberg (auth.), J. EILENBERG, H.M.T. HOKKANEN

By Jørgen Eilenberg (auth.), J. EILENBERG, H.M.T. HOKKANEN (eds.)

Biological keep watch over is one of the so much promising tools for keep an eye on of pests (including vectors), ailments and weeds. during this ebook ecological and societal points are for the 1st time handled jointly. In an ecological strategy the purpose is to guage the importance of convinced organic homes like biodiversity and normal habitats. additionally, you will need to see organic regulate from an natural (or ecological) farming viewpoint. In a societal process phrases like ‘consumer’s attitude’, ‘risk perception’, ‘learning and schooling’ and ‘value triangle’ are regarded as major for organic construction and human welfare.

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Organic fruit growers try to do best with cultural practices and conservation biocontrol measures (which they collectively call “indirect measures”) to protect and enhance pest antagonists. If indirect measures are not sufficient, fruit growers apply indigenous, species specific organisms for inundative or inoculative biocontrol whenever there are commercial products available. Classical biocontrol measures are not specifically linked to organic agriculture but are also part of an organic plant protection strategy.

4. Fruit production in South Asia An interesting set of case studies was published by Lubulwa and McMeniman (1998) on the classical biological control projects carried out in South Asia to combat pests affecting fruit production in the area. In total, ten projects were evaluated, and of them, only three failed to generate significant economic impacts. Even more interestingly, two of the ‘failed’ projects did not fail because the biological control would not have worked, but because the industry, which they were helping, was not economically viable and disappeared for other reasons.

Benefits and risks of classical biological control. In: Hokkanen, H. M. T. and Lynch, J. M. (eds), Biological Control: Benefits and Risks. Cambridge Univ. , 53-63. , and Meikle, W. 1999. Evaluation of results. Economics of biological control. In: Bellows, T. S. and Fischer, T. W. (eds), Handbook of Biological Control. Academic Press, San Diego, CA, USA, 243-252. Hokkanen, H. M. T. and Hajek, A. E. (eds) 2003. Environmental Impact of Microbial Insecticides: Need and Methods for Risk Assessment. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, the Netherlands.

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