Hydrology : Principles, Analysis, and Design, Second Edition by H.M. Raghunath

By H.M. Raghunath

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Extra resources for Hydrology : Principles, Analysis, and Design, Second Edition

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8 DEPTH-AREA-DURATION (DAD) CURVES Rainfall rarely occurs uniformly over a large area; variations in intensity and total depth of fall occur from the centres to the peripheries of storms. From Fig. 13 it can be seen that the average depth of rainfall decreases from the maximum as the area considered increases. The average depths of rainfall are plotted against the areas up to the encompassing isohyets. It may be necessary in some cases to study alternative isohyetal maps to establish maximum 1day, 2-day, 3 day (even up to 5-day) rainfall for various sizes of areas.

9). From the plot, the year in which a change in regime (or environment) has occurred is indicated by the change in slope of the straight line plot. The rainfall records of the station x are adjusted by multiplying the recorded values of rainfall by the ratio of slopes of the straight lines before and after change in environment. 2 The annual rainfall at station X and the average annual rainfall at 18 surrounding stations are given below. Check the consistency of the record at station X and determine the year in which a change in regime has occurred.

17 18 HYDROLOGY Warm air Frontal surface cold air mass Warm air mass Warm air mass Cold air mass Colder air Cold air Frontal surface Low pressure (a) Cold front (c) Stationary front (b) Warm front Fig. 1 Frontal precipitation Heavy rain Leeward (Landward) side Windward (Seaward side) Mountainous range msl Rain-shadow area Land Sea Fig. 2 MEASUREMENT OF PRECIPITATION Rainfall may be measured by a network of rain gauges which may either be of non-recording or recording type. ) GL 5 cm Ground level GL 5 cm 5 cm 20 cm 50 55 cm Masonry foundation block 60 cm × 60 cm × 60 cm Measuring jar (glass) 60 cm Fig.

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