By Arthur C. Benke, Colbert E. Cushing
AWARDS:2006 remarkable educational identify, via CHOICEThe 2005 Award for Excellence in specialist and Scholarly Publishing by way of the organization of yank Publishers (AAP) most sensible Reference 2005, via the Library JournalRivers of North the United States is a crucial reference for scientists, ecologists, and scholars learning rivers and their ecosystems. It brings jointly info from a number of nearby experts at the significant river basins of North the United States, awarded in a large-format, full-color ebook. The creation covers normal features of geology, hydrology, ecology and human affects on rivers. this can be by way of 22 chapters at the significant river basins. every one bankruptcy starts off with a full-page colour picture and contains a number of extra images in the textual content. those chapters function 3 to 5 rivers of the basin/region, and canopy a number of different rivers with one-page summaries. Rivers chosen for assurance comprise the biggest, the main ordinary, and the main suffering from human effect. This distinct source is professionally illustrated with maps and colour pictures of the main river basins. Readers can examine one river process to a different when it comes to its physiography, hydrology, ecology, biodiversity, and human affects. * broad remedy presents a unmarried resource of knowledge for North America's significant rivers* nearby experts supply authoritative details on greater than 2 hundred rivers* Full-color photos and topographical maps exhibit the sweetness, significant positive aspects, and strong point of every river process* One-page summaries aid readers speedy locate key information and make comparisons between rivers
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AWARDS:2006 awesome educational name, through CHOICEThe 2005 Award for Excellence in specialist and Scholarly Publishing by means of the organization of yankee Publishers (AAP) most sensible Reference 2005, via the Library JournalRivers of North the USA is a vital reference for scientists, ecologists, and scholars learning rivers and their ecosystems.
Extra info for Rivers of North America
A common measurement made in streams and rivers to determine the relative dependence on autochthonous or allochthonous energy is the P/R ratio. This is defined as the ratio of primary production (which produces oxygen) to community respiration (which consumes oxygen) over a 24-hour period. A value of unity or above denotes an autotrophic section of river, where the system is producing sufficient oxygen to meet its needs. A value of <1 denotes a significant heterotrophic influence, in which the system is using more oxygen than it produces and dissolved oxygen must be replenished from the atmosphere.
It is calculated by dividing discharge (m3/s) by basin surface area (km2) and multiplying by the appropriate conversion of time units. For many rivers throughout the world, runoff can be obtained directly from the International Hydrological Programme Web site. Such information has sometimes been presented as annual unit area discharge or water yield (km3 of water/km2 of land, or m3 of water/hectare of land). , Benke et al. 2000). , fraction of precipitation that discharges to the mouth). On average, the difference between annual precipitation and annual runoff should be roughly equal to evapotranspiration losses, assuming no major movements of water among basins from groundwater exchanges.
Pflieger, and H. W. Robison. 1996. Conservation status of crayfishes of the United States and Canada. Fisheries 21(4):25–38. Thorp, J. , and M. D. Delong. 1994. The riverine productivity model: An heuristic view of carbon sources and organic processing in large river ecosystems. Oikos 70:305–308. Thorp, J. , M. D. Delong, K. S. Greenwood, and A. F. Casper. 1998. Isotopic analysis of three food web theories in constricted and floodplain regions of a large river. Oecologia 117:551–563. , F. Malard, and J.